It’s necessary that we believe that the child is very intelligent, that the child is strong and beautiful and has very ambitious desires and requests. This is the image of the child that we need to hold.
Malaguzzi, Your Image of the Child: Where Teaching Begins
The Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education, founded by Loris Malaguzzi in Northern Italy just after World War II, has since gained worldwide acclaim for its child-centred, social constructivist philosophy of teaching and learning. Foundational to the Reggio methodology is the teacher’s Image of the Child as a unique, curious, and capable being, with the ability to co-construct his or her own learning, and full of potential for life-long success. The BC Early Learning Framework, a guide for early childhood and kindergarten teachers in our province, reinforces the importance of a shared, positive image of the child to “inspire people who interact with children to promote their individual strengths.” And in the Reggio tradition, this means focusing on the strengths of every child, no matter what learning or behavioural challenges they may experience in their development.
It seems to me that this strengths-based approach to viewing children, which is actively promoted in early learning environments, should be equally reinforced for teachers working with older students, particularly those with special needs or youth who have been identified as ‘at risk’.
A Strengths-Based Model for Students with Learning Disabilities
In BC schools students with significant special needs often require additional supports to enable them to participate in educational programs. In order to receive extra Ministry funding, school districts must identify special needs students based on appropriate categories, including moderate to profound physical or intellectual disabilities, autism, intensive behavior issues, or mental illness. The documentation and processes involved in identifying students with special needs in these categories is complex and time-consuming, and often challenges school and district-based resource teams to maintain their positive image of the child.
Whenever I participate in school-based resource team meetings, I am struck by the emphasis on negative child images – stories of students who can’t sit still, can’t do work at grade level, can’t read, have written output issues, won’t follow rules, don’t get along with classmates, have low self-esteem or poor social skills. There is little time for stories of success because the value is in painting the worst-case scenario possible for each struggling student.
It’s a Wheel of Fortune game, where consonants (Gs, Hs, Qs, and Rs) not vowels are traded up through a rigorous and onerous system of requests, referrals, and paperwork involving school and district staff, parents, and outside agencies. The goal of the game is getting kids labeled with designations that come with extra funding, often in the form of additional Educational Assistant (EA) staffing hours. The question then becomes, what is the image of the child who is pulled out of his classroom to work in the hallway of the school, filling out endless worksheets under the direction of an EA?
Do we still see that child as a curious, capable, intelligent being, capable of co-constructing his learning when we put him in situations that require him to do more and more of what he struggles with the most? Extra support for our special needs students is a good thing, but a more positive image of the child, one that is grounded in a diversity model, can provide better frameworks and possibilities for success.
Thomas Armstrong’s article First, Discover Their Strengths published in the October 2012 issue of Educational Leadership emphasizes the need for educators to shift to a more positive, strengths-based image of children identified with special needs.
Despite our best intentions, we’ve created a system of special education based on deficits. To fashion an environment in which students with special needs can achieve their fullest potential, we need to dig deep into the roots of special education and, at the bedrock level, replace its disability paradigm with a belief system based on diversity (p. 12).
Armstrong describes a new movement called Neurodiversity that applies the same positive belief system and attitude to differences in human brains that exist in the fields of biodiversity and cultural diversity. Neurodiversity is based on the belief that there is no “typical” or “normal” brain. Therefore we need to look at students with special needs not in terms of their deficits, but in terms of their strengths.
“We don’t look at a calla lily and say it has ‘petal deficit disorder; we appreciate its beautiful shape.’”
Research in the field of Neurodiversity identifies the strengths of people with special needs. For example, Armstrong quotes studies demonstrating that…
Students with autism:
- Appear to do better on tasks focusing on small details within complex patterns
- Tend to be systemizers who have a fascination with logical structures
- Often score high on highly figural tests
Students with dyslexia:
- Often demonstrate superior artistic abilities
- Can identify complex 3D objects
- Often show higher than average entrepreneurial ability
Students with ADHD
- Have a tendency to seek novelty, a prerequisite for creative behavior
And the list goes on. Armstrong’s point is that by building “strength awareness” for our special needs students we can then begin to construct the “best ecological niches” for them– learning environments that reflect their strengths and in which they can thrive.
Armstrong offers seven practical components for building positive learning environments for special needs students:
- Strength Awareness – putting more time and energy into detailing students’ positive attributes (rather than assessing their deficits) using research, strengths inventories, portfolios, file reviews, interviews
- Positive Role Models – highlighting famous neurodiverse people as “heroes with special needs”
- Universal Design for Learning –curriculum design that acknowledges diversity and removes barriers to learning (e.g. assistive technology)
- Strengths-Based Learning Strategies – differentiated learning tailored to individual needs
- Enhanced Human Resources – enriching human support systems for students by strengthening positive relationships with adults and peers
- Affirmative Career Aspirations – constructing positive self-images and expectations for success as adults through career awareness initiatives
- Environmental Modifications – equipment or room set up that reduces challenges for students (earplugs, weighted vests, quiet rooms)
Recognizing Strengths and Talents in At Risk Youth
This same philosophy can also be extended to students at risk. In Turning it Around for All Youth: From Risk to Resilience Bonnie Benard emphasizes the need to shift away from viewing children “through a deficit lens” that focuses on social issues, at risk behaviours and academic failure. While social science research has successfully identified many of the problems that put students at risk (poverty, substance abuse, family dysfunction, etc.), and we have been able to get more services to children and families by identifying these issues, Benard points out that the process has also led to stereotyping, tracking, lowered expectations, prejudice and discrimination. It has prevented us from developing a positive image of the these students:
“Looking at children and families through a deficit lens obscures a recognition of their capacities and strengths, as well as their individuality and uniqueness” (p. 1).
Benard cites research on resilience that disproves the deficit model and recommends practices and attitudes that promote healthy development and success for students at risk. The starting point is the positive belief among adults working with at-risk youth that all students have the potential for developing resilience. Specific considerations for this model include:
- Caring relationships between adults and students
- Positive, high expectations for all students
- School-community collaborations
- Growth opportunities for students
Nelson and Eckstein (2008) propose A Service-Learning Model for At-Risk Adolescents that expands on Benard’s school-community connections and reflects many of the core principles of Project-Based Learning. In a service-learning model students and educators collaborate in creating learning opportunities that encourage “optimum student engagement in the community, in the educational process, and in self-discovery” (p.224). Service learning is “possibility focused rather than problem focused” (p.227), providing students with opportunities to engage in positive ways with the community in environmental initiatives, social justice campaigns, and civic responsibility projects.
This type of learning that extends beyond the classroom helps students build the “developmental assets” that can lead to more positive decision making and pro-social behaviours. A service-learning model can also contribute to improved academic achievement:
“Current research suggested that students who are involved in service-learning were more likely than students not participating in service-learning to make higher test scores and be more engaged in learning” (p.226)
Shifting from a deficit-based image of the child to one that is strength-based, enables educators to create positive learning environments and opportunities that honour diversity and recognize students’ unique skills and talents.
It is this positive image of the child that we need to hold in order to help our most vulnerable students overcome their challenges, experience success, and develop resilience.
Armstrong, T. (2012). First, discover their strengths. Educational Leadership, 70(2), 10-16.
Benard, B. (1997). Turning it around for all youth: From risk to resilience. ERIC Digest. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from: http://resilnet.uiuc.edu/library/dig126.html
Malaguzzi, L. (1993). Your image of the child: Where teaching begins. Translation of a seminar presented in June 1993. Retrieved March 15, 2013 from: http://www.reggioalliance.org/downloads/malaguzzi:ccie:1994.pdf
Nelson, J. & Eckstein, D. (2008). A service-learning model for at-risk adolescents. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(2), 223-237